Intelligence has been called the world's second oldest profession, and it is certainly a function that has been employed by all nations and governments since nations and governments have existed. From the spies sent by Moses to "spy out the land of Canaan" (Numbers 13:17 King James Bible), to the advice of Sun Tzu (trans. 1901) to be subtle and "use spies for every kind of business" (chap. 13), the use of intelligence to pursue national and government policies and to extend national strategic influence has been a constant factor throughout history.
Federal veterinarians are vital to America’s security. They are at the forefront of protecting the nation’s critical infrastructure in the food and agriculture sector through their inspection of slaughterhouses, veterinary research, and response to animal disease outbreaks. Their work is high-stakes, and failure could lead to significant economic damage, illness, and even death. Despite this, Federal veterinarians are in short supply and are an often overlooked participant in homeland security. As a result of a 2009 U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) report and a U.S. Senate hearing, the Federal government has taken initial actions to address these issues. This article will explore what has been done and offer recommendations that could reduce damage to America in the event of a serious animal disease outbreak
As a symbol of modern India, Mumbai highlights India’s successes with both democracy and capitalism. In addition to its preeminence as a financial, entertainment, and cultural center, Mumbai is India’s largest city and one of the most densely populated cities in the world. All this, as well as its accessibility and assailable security, combined to make Mumbai an ideal target for Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) terrorists on November 26, 2008 (Forster, 2012, p. 1). While this particular event was confined to India, this type of devastating attack could occur almost anywhere in the world, including the United States. The successful LeT attack on Mumbai provides both instruction and inspiration for future acts of terrorism, but also it presents significant opportunities to inform global counterterrorism efforts. The Mumbai event and its lessons can be analyzed by considering the traditional elements of terrorism, identifying the unique aspects of this attack, assessing India’s response relative to the mission areas of Presidential Policy Directive-8 (PPD-8), and understanding implications for U.S. homeland security.